Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)


SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE


INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE


Names: Sean Lim Kai Xiang, Nikisha Tan-Mishra, Javier Tay Yu Cheng, Joel Tan Xin Wei


Class: S2-09


Group Reference: D


1. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research


[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)


[    ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)


[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics


[ X ] Observational and exploratory research


[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research


2. Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:


Title: An investigation to find out the effect of different beverages on our teeth.


A. Question being addressed


Which type of liquids are the most corrosive to teeth?


The independent variable is the types of beverages used in the experiment


The dependent variable is the length and mass of the ‘teeth’


The constants are:


a) The amount of beverage used
b) The initial mass of the ‘teeth’
c) The period of time for the corrosion to take place


B. Hypotheses


Corrosive liquids will cause decrease in teeth mass, the more corrosive, the more severe the corrosion.


C. Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items
that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipment list:


  • 200 ml Coca Cola
  • 200 ml 1% Amylase
  • 200 ml Orange juice
  • 200 ml Tea
  • 200 ml Coffee
  • 200 ml Distilled Water
  • 200 ml Natural Acidity White Vinegar
  • 200 ml Glass Beakers (x7)
  • Bleach
  • Measuring Scale (To 3 Decimal Place)
  • Paper towels
  • Calcium carbonate marbles
  • A few chalks
  • Tweezer


• Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection


Preparation for experiment
1. Measure mass of each marble and note it down on its beaker
2. Fill beakers up to 200ml with each type of liquid.
3. Disinfect with bleach ( to prevent mould growth)
4. Drop chalk and marble into their respective beakers at the same time.
5. After checking everything, put back for refrigeration.


Data collection
In a one day interval,
1. Remove chalk and marble from beaker
2. Dry with cloth
3. Observes visual changes to chalk
4. Record mass of marble
5. Record down mass difference and observe any trends
6. Put chalk and marble back in

• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


Table 1


1. Glass beakers shattering and thus injuring ourselves on glass fragments
Likelihood: 2
Severity: 1
Risk = 2 (Tolerable)
Precaution: Wear gloves and safety goggles while handling the equipment and be careful.


2. Stale drinks/drinks tested with chalk could be toxic if consumed
Likelihood: 1
Severity: 2
Risk = 2 (Tolerable)
Precaution: Do not consume any of the beverages used in the experiment.


3. The bleach is extremely hazardous to our health should it be consumed or the gases inhaled.
Likelihood: 2
Severity: 3
Risk = 6 (Substantial)
Precaution: Keep our faces a safe distance from the bleach and ensure that we are wearing gloves when handling the bleach.


• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses


1. Dry the marble and clean it before placing it for weight. Check for an increase or decrease of mass of the marble piece. The more drastic the decrease, the more marble has corroded, showing how corrosive the particular liquid is to our teeth.


2. Make visual observations of the chalk. Check for any visible corrosion on the chalk or visual differences. The more drastic the difference, and over the shortest amount of time, the more likely it is that the liquid is affecting our teeth negatively.


3. Using the data collected from the chalk and marble pieces, conclude which drink would have the greatest effect on our teeth. Use the difference in mass and visual observations to do so.


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.


All Science Fair Projects. (n.d.). Effect of carbonated drinks on the erosion of tooth enamel. Retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://www.all-science-fair-projects.com/print_project_1166_40?print=1.


Drinks Destroy Teeth. (2012, May 12). How to Identify Acid Exposure. Retrieved August 2, 2014 from http://drinksdestroyteeth.org/?p=127.


Educating Wellness. (n.d.). Dangers of Bleach. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from http://www.educatingwellness.com/natural-health/dangers-of-bleach/.


Fiddlehead Dental. (2008). List of the Acidity of Food and Drinks. Retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://www.fiddleheaddental.com/whats-eating-your-teeth/list-of-the-acidity-of-foods-and-drinks.


Ministry of Manpower. (2013, June 18). Risk Management. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.mom.gov.sg/workplace-safety-health/safety-health-management-systems/Pages/risk-management.aspx.


Wikipedia. (2014, July 7). Chalk. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk.


Wikipedia. (2014, July 15). Tooth Enamel. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tooth_enamel.

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