Monday, 7 July 2014

Literature Reviews

Here are our practice literature reviews for the individual topics we had chosen. Everything had been written based on research we had done :3 


- The Heat Exchanger system  has CO2 gas, which adsorbs the heat to activated carbons at 10bar. When a certain valve mechanism incorporated in the HEU is activated or depressed, a pressure differential is created between the atmosphere and the HEU The CO2 gas which is adsorbed to the activated carbons at a high pressure inside the HEU evaporates to the atmosphere. During this process of desorption of the gas from the activated carbon, a reduction in temperature of the food or beverage in thermal contact with the outer surface of the HEU is achieved. Since, there is a reduction in pressure of the carbon-dioxide gas during the desorption process, it absorbs the heat from the beverage.(Joseph company, 2014)


1. Is perpetual motion possible?
Perpetual Motion Machine, a device that will run forever without any outside source of energy. Such a machine cannot exist, because it would violate the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Some energy would always be wasted (although not destroyed) through friction and so the supply of useful energy—needed to run the machine—would eventually be depleted. Since the machine could not create new energy, it would stop running. (, 25 August 2009)

Although all available evidence had shown much earlier that such machines could not be constructed, they were not proved to be impossible until 1847, when Hermann von Helmholtz formulated the law of conservation of energy. (, 25 August 2009)

2. What are the conditions for liquid to move the fastest under the Leidenfrost Effect?
The Leidenfrost effect, also known as film boiling, occurs when a liquid comes into contact with a solid that is at a temperature well above the liquid’s boiling point. Upon contact, a layer of vapor forms between the liquid-solid interface, creating a barrier between the two. There are many examples of this phenomenon, ranging from something you may have seen in your kitchen (water “dancing” around in a pan) to things you shouldn’t try at home (dipping your hand into a pot of molten lead). 
(Andrew Griesmer, 2013)


 Magnetic shock absorbers

In shoes such as the Nike Air Max, a huge amount of air space is put in the space in between the sole and the foot to provide cushion for the user.

Air cushioned shoes are great for sports as it provides a comfortable experience for jumpers, however, there is a drawback for shoes with a huge amount of air cushion. These type of shoes tend to be thicker and higher compared to ordinary sports shoes, this can lower the users' reaction time and landing balance.

The solution for this is to replace the conventional air cushion system with an advanced magnetic repulsion system.

As a result, the sole will become thinner and more shock can be absorbed.

For conventional sports shoes, there is another drawback as well. While playing intense games such as basketball, alot of jumping and agility is needed. After jumping and landing with these conventional shoes, there needs to be some time to re inflate the air chambers, furthermore, while the sportsman is in his ready position the shoe will become slightly deflated, effectively decreasing the user's strength when leaping.

For magnetic shock absorption, the magnets are constantly repelling each other.

In order to prevent magnetic metals from being attracted from the ground, a thin layer of materials such as cobalt can be used to contain the force of attraction below only.

Using this idea will open up the market for shoe customisation and the magnets' strengths can be tuned to suit the sport the user is playing or just for the user's preference.

1 comment:

  1. Hey guys. not sure if you can ever see this but i feel extremely fortunate to have you as my group members. sorry if i did not work as hard as i should