Monday, 7 July 2014

Literature Reviews

Here are our practice literature reviews for the individual topics we had chosen. Everything had been written based on research we had done :3 


- The Heat Exchanger system  has CO2 gas, which adsorbs the heat to activated carbons at 10bar. When a certain valve mechanism incorporated in the HEU is activated or depressed, a pressure differential is created between the atmosphere and the HEU The CO2 gas which is adsorbed to the activated carbons at a high pressure inside the HEU evaporates to the atmosphere. During this process of desorption of the gas from the activated carbon, a reduction in temperature of the food or beverage in thermal contact with the outer surface of the HEU is achieved. Since, there is a reduction in pressure of the carbon-dioxide gas during the desorption process, it absorbs the heat from the beverage.(Joseph company, 2014)


1. Is perpetual motion possible?
Perpetual Motion Machine, a device that will run forever without any outside source of energy. Such a machine cannot exist, because it would violate the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Some energy would always be wasted (although not destroyed) through friction and so the supply of useful energy—needed to run the machine—would eventually be depleted. Since the machine could not create new energy, it would stop running. (, 25 August 2009)

Although all available evidence had shown much earlier that such machines could not be constructed, they were not proved to be impossible until 1847, when Hermann von Helmholtz formulated the law of conservation of energy. (, 25 August 2009)

2. What are the conditions for liquid to move the fastest under the Leidenfrost Effect?
The Leidenfrost effect, also known as film boiling, occurs when a liquid comes into contact with a solid that is at a temperature well above the liquid’s boiling point. Upon contact, a layer of vapor forms between the liquid-solid interface, creating a barrier between the two. There are many examples of this phenomenon, ranging from something you may have seen in your kitchen (water “dancing” around in a pan) to things you shouldn’t try at home (dipping your hand into a pot of molten lead). 
(Andrew Griesmer, 2013)


 Magnetic shock absorbers

In shoes such as the Nike Air Max, a huge amount of air space is put in the space in between the sole and the foot to provide cushion for the user.

Air cushioned shoes are great for sports as it provides a comfortable experience for jumpers, however, there is a drawback for shoes with a huge amount of air cushion. These type of shoes tend to be thicker and higher compared to ordinary sports shoes, this can lower the users' reaction time and landing balance.

The solution for this is to replace the conventional air cushion system with an advanced magnetic repulsion system.

As a result, the sole will become thinner and more shock can be absorbed.

For conventional sports shoes, there is another drawback as well. While playing intense games such as basketball, alot of jumping and agility is needed. After jumping and landing with these conventional shoes, there needs to be some time to re inflate the air chambers, furthermore, while the sportsman is in his ready position the shoe will become slightly deflated, effectively decreasing the user's strength when leaping.

For magnetic shock absorption, the magnets are constantly repelling each other.

In order to prevent magnetic metals from being attracted from the ground, a thin layer of materials such as cobalt can be used to contain the force of attraction below only.

Using this idea will open up the market for shoe customisation and the magnets' strengths can be tuned to suit the sport the user is playing or just for the user's preference.

Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Generating Research Questions

We had learnt how to generate good research topics based on our capabilities, time restraints, and budgeting, which had been made simpler with ScienceBuddie's Fair Project Ideas.

Finally, we had all individually formulated our own project ideas that we believe we could do:


- What are the factors leading to the speed and impact of steel bearings shot from a Gaussian rifle? (Unfortunately, firearms aren't allowed in Singapore, so this is unfeasible)
- Is perpetual motion possible?
- What are the conditions for liquid to move the fastest under the Leidenfrost Effect?

- A stationary machine that can be widely placed and people who want to cool down their drinks instantly can place the item in the machine and a blast of carbon dioxide would cool it down for a menial sum of 10 cents or for free.
- An alternative version is a portable container with a port for the can of carbon dioxide and functions similarly to the machine above.

Sean Lim

- Whether the ambient temperature of solar cells affects its power output. And if it does, what can be done to maximise the effectivity of solar panels.
- Building a model of a fully automatic smart home controlled by a phone (arduino)
- Will replacing air cushions with magnetic shock absorbers in shoes be better?  (using light magnets)

Joel Tan Xin Wei
- How the shapes and size of the rocket affects its aerodynamic and performance
(No free space to launch the rocket)

Essential Questions

1) What is Science?

Dictionary Definition - The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

Personal Definition - Science is an understanding of how the world around us and certain phenomenas work and occur.

2) Scientific Method

The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. Scientists use the scientific method to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way.
The scientific method aids in helping our team focus our ISS project question and topic, construct a hypothesis, and finally design, execute, and evaluate our experiment.

According to,
More information on the scientific method can be found here:


Javier Tay (Group Leader)

Hey there! I am Javier Tay and the group leader. I formed the name for this team (which was recycled from last year), "Team Delta", much to the chuckles of my fellow team. 

I am no sporty person, as you can tell from my physique. It might surprise you that I joined a sports CCA, fencing, and I actually enjoy it. The musicians whom I like listening to is Air Supply (an oldies soft rock duo), Adele (a British female talent) and Bruno Mars (an American pop singer). I basically spent most of my childhood reading and I developed Myopia because of my passion. I will do my best to strive for this team and make it the most awesome one for years to come!

Joel Tan (Research Specialist)

Hai :D I am Joel.

Once I have the free time, I'll go to wikipedia and search for more planes and wars to increase my knowledge, thus giving me this task as a research specialist. I'm currently interested in aviation and warfare. I do flight simulation on a daily basis. Surprisingly, I have strength in sports too. Any ball game (except soccer) I am a very good defensive player and interceptor.

Sean Lim (Researcher Specialist)

Hi! My name is Sean, I am one of the research leaders. My interests are android computing development, consumer electronics and I love sports as well. I mess around with the computer a lot when I am free and learn many things about tech while doing so, which makes me sort of well known for help with IT. I do sports such as basketball, badminton and soccer. Amongst all these sports, I am best in Badminton and so I joined Badminton CCA :D

Nikisha Tan-Mishra (Multi-Media Manager)


Hey, I'm Nikisha, a member of TEAM DELTA :D

People always tell me I'm hyper, annoying, and restless, though I think they're just exaggerating. A little. I really like watching anime, reading manga, reading and writing stories, and listening to music.  I like faster, more upbeat songs such as rock, alternative rock, discotheque and occasionally EDM. Bands/Singers I like are Three Days Grace, Breaking Benjamin, Linkin Park, and 30 Seconds to Mars. Like I said, I enjoy reading and my favourite authors are Dan Brown and Mathew Riley, and I guess my favourite genres are mystery, gore, horror, and action. Wow, I don't really have much else to my life other than this. Oh well.